It’s Societal Role - II

Source: The Hitavada      Date: 25 Dec 2018 12:11:29


 

By dr amit n gupta,

Preceding article inspect the role of polymer in food and packaging industries, in agriculture, in printing field, in plastic product and automobile sector, in construction field, in electrical and electronics. Modifications increased their physical and chemical properties, as per requirement of society for example sensors. The sensors are used in environmental monitoring for toxic gases, pollutant in potable water and river.


Moreover of these, damage human parts are substituted by polymer, i.e. knee and prostatic limbs implant. Metal ions are added into polymer chain or interminable functional group to form polyamide – metal complex. Coordination polymers are applicable as adhesive, surface coating, high temperature lubricant, space vehicle and constructional material as per requirement in high speed aircraft. Aromatic polyamides (Aramides or Polyaramides) are having outstanding thermal and mechanical resistance. Low and high powder polymer electrolyte dry batteries are revolution in production of batteries is possible only by modified polymer which are available for international space station for its operation.


In Sensors

Recently polymers are used in manufacturing of electronic measuring devices such as alcohol, pH sensors and gas sensors. Conducting polymers are functions as a coating surface of electrodes or immobilising material. Methacrylic polymers have been used for receptor agent for nucleotides, amino acid and herbicide sensor. Phthaocyamine has been used as coating for QCM sensor used as ethanol sensor. Conducting and non conducting polymers have been used in biosensor. It has been extensively used in, environmental, medical diagnostics and pollution control.


In Transportation
The requirement of power for operation is full filled by a battery which is used in cars, heavy duty and light duty vehicle. Batteries made up of polymer such as fuel cell, it gives energy efficiency as well as substitution for fossils fuel. Tyers are required for moment of vehicle in cars and all other moving vehicles. Natural and synthetic rubbers i.e. Butadienes alkenes hydrocarbons, isoprene and styrene are used in production of tyers. Polymer composites used in transport application which make transportation easier and cheaper for the society.


In Textile Industry
In the form of fibers and non-woven textiles, PLA also has many potential uses, for example- upholstery, disposable garments. Cups and Bags have been made from PLA Material. In the form of a film, PLA is useful for producing loose-fill packaging, compost bags, food packaging and disposable tableware.


In Medical Field
Poly Lactic Acid (PLA) is used in cosmetics, medical implants as anchors, screws, plates, pin and rods. Hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose(HPMC), Methyl cellulose, Propylene glycol are used as coating material, Acacia, Gelatin, Sodium alginate are used as a binders in tabletting granulation, methyl cellulose is used as a thickening agent in suspension and ophthalmic preparations. Poly anhydrides –Used for vaccination and localised tumor therapy. Tyrosine derived polycarbonates developed as high-strength degradable orthopaedic implants. Polyphosphazenesis used for immobilization of antigen or enzyme. In this way polymer (natural or man-made) used in orthopedic implants or replace human body parts such as breast, knee, hip, joint, and dental structures. These replacements give new chance of life to patient. Polyethylene is biocompatible usages in hip and knee joint replacements. PE has been reinforced using HA particles synthetic bone grafting. Bulk space filler are mainly SR, PE and PTFE polymer.


Good medical equipment for pathological examination and easy movement for disable when polymer composite replaces the damaged part of the body. Medical equipments such as MR and CT are made of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite. Polymer composite material is used for making surgical clamp, X-ray films and head rest frames.


In Communication Field
The insulation properties of polymers are utilised in communication industries for underground and Aerial cabling of telecommunication, broadband and radio equipments.


Furniture Manufacturing
Fabricated steel is less expensive but heavier and prone to oxidation; aluminum is lighter but more expensive and an energy-consuming glutton Plastics with two-dimensional molecular structures are termed thermoplastics and can be heat softened and recycled. Two thermoplastics commonly used in the furniture industry are polypropylene (Robin Day's polychair) and eco-questionable PVC (polyvinyl chloride), used for panel edging and foils. Plastics with three-dimensional internal structures, termed themosets, will not resoften with heat once formed. Polymers in this category play a largely supportive role in furniture manufacturing - polyurethane (adhesives and upholstery foam), phenolics (adhesives) and polyester (finishes, fabrics). Polymers can also be combined with each other (similar to alloys in metals) or with other materials such as glass fibre - Tulip chair is a classic example.


In International Space Center
Low weighted batteries are made with polymer material, solid polymer electrolyte and polymer alloyed materials. Fuel Cell system gives good results hence used in space application.


Conclusion
Now a days researches are going on to reduce the negative impact of polymer. Researchers are paying more attention to form effective biodegradable plastics. Polymer is playing the important role in application of Agriculture, transportation, medical and specialized area as biological and chemical sensors. It shows the multi functionality of polymer. In the Medical field, polymer very useful for devices such as pacemaker, artificial blood tube and artificial heart. Moreover, polymers are used to implants such as bone plate, sutures, ligament, joint replacement and vascular graft. The uses of polymers are extended by electronic nose and tongue, international space station, fuel cell, automobile sector, prevention of historical building, drug delivery application etc.


(The author is Assistant professor, Department of Chemistry, JD College of Engineering and Management, Nagpur, and can be contacted at [email protected])